Browse Items (89 total)

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Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition

The Fundamentals of Physical Geography (2nd Edition) online textbook describes an area of knowledge within Geography known as Physical Geography. The textbook contains over three hundred pages of information and more than four hundred 2-D…

Deserts: Geology and Resources

Contents: What Is a Desert; How the Atmosphere Influences Aridity; Where Deserts Form; Types of Deserts; Desert Features; Eolian Processes; Types of Dunes; Remote Sensing of Arid Lands; Mineral Resources in Deserts; Desertification.

The Physical Environment: an Introduction to Physical Geography

Online introductory textbook on physical geography. Students and educators can find nineteen chapters equipped with animations, interactive materials, and audio. At the end of each chapter, visitors can find review questions, a quiz, an overview of…

Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics is the scientific theory that attempts to explain the movements of the Earth's lithosphere that have formed the landscape features we see across the globe today. By definition the word "plate" in geologic terms means a large slab of…


An Overview and History of the Study of Biogeography

Mapping tree density at a global scale

Ground-sourced tree density data is assembled to provide a global map of tree density, which reveals that there are three trillion trees (tenfold more than previous estimates); tree numbers have declined by nearly half since the start of human…

Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events

Abrupt climate change is a ubiquitous feature of the Late Pleistocene epoch1. In particular, the sequence of Dansgaard–Oeschger events (repeated transitions between warm interstadial and cold stadial conditions), as recorded by ice cores in…

Recovery potential of the world's coral reef fishes

Continuing degradation of coral reef ecosystems has generated substantial interest in how management can support reef resilience1, 2. Fishing is the primary source of diminished reef function globally3, 4, 5, leading to widespread calls for…

The changing form of Antarctic biodiversity

Antarctic biodiversity is much more extensive, ecologically diverse and biogeographically structured than previously thought. Understanding of how this diversity is distributed in marine and terrestrial systems, the mechanisms underlying its spatial…

Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme temperature trends

This study identifies statistically significant trends in mid-atmospheric circulation patterns that partially explain observed changes in extreme temperature occurrence over Eurasia and North America; although the underlying cause of circulation…

Pacific western boundary currents and their roles in climate

A review of western boundary currents in the Pacific Ocean explores their far-reaching influence on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the Indonesian Throughflow, Asian monsoons, and ocean circulation in the South China Sea, and concludes that major…

Rogue antimatter found in thunderclouds

An inside about lightnings

Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion

Particulate organic carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere is primarily controlled by physical erosion, and tectonic and climatic forcing of physical erosion may favour biospheric particulate organic carbon sequestration over silicate…

Fisheries: Eyes on the ocean

Sounding the alarm over global fish harvests

Agriculture: Increase water harvesting in Africa

Meeting global food needs requires strategies for storing rainwater and retaining soil moisture to bridge dry spells

Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink

The capacity of Amazonian forests to sequester carbon has weakened with potentially important implications for climate change.

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Intensification and spatial homogenization of coastal upwelling under climate change

An ensemble of climate models shows that by the end of the twenty-first century the coastal upwelling season near the eastern boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans will start earlier, end later and become more intense at high latitudes, thus…

Seismic evidence of effects of water on melt transport in the Lau back-arc mantle

Tomographically derived seismic velocities are used to infer the distribution of partial melt below the Lau Basin, revealing an unexpected relationship between the amount of in situ melt and the water content of the magma, indicating that subducted…

The benefits of traditional knowledge

A study of two Balkan ethnic groups living in close proximity finds that traditional knowledge about local plant resources helps communities to cope with periods of famine, and can promote the conservation of biodiversity.

World's deadliest volcanoes identified

An article about the deadliest volcanoes